Others, such as the red-shouldered hawk, were shot and killed in great numbers by farmers that mistakenly believe the hawks will hunt domestic fowl such as chickens. on NARA's archives.gov. A complete list of all references cited in this rule is available at http://www.regulations.gov at Docket No. Furthermore, there are a number of introduced birds (e.g., house sparrows and house finches) and mosquitoes (e.g., Culex quinquefasciatus) that could support WNV amplification in Hawaii and transport it from low to middle to high elevations (Marra et al. The State is also implementing a surveillance program so that it can detect the virus if it arrives, and take appropriate and timely action. Although the Hawaiian hawk occurs on a single island, it is a very large island and the hawk's range encompasses most of it. The first preliminary population estimate of 1,400 to 2,500 birds (Griffin 1985, p. 25) was based on home range size from radio telemetry data and distribution data from island-wide bird surveys. Many commenters felt it inappropriate to delist the Hawaiian hawk because it is culturally important to native Hawaiians and should, therefore, retain protections under the Act. It measures about 16-18 inches (40-46 cm) in length and has two color phases: a dark phase and a light phase (USFWS). 1995, p. 179), other studies on Buteo species outside of Hawaii have found that reproductive success was not affected by the degree of urbanization around nest sites, and that reproductive rates of Buteo species in areas of human habitat were not affected by urbanization (Rottenborn 2000, p. 18; Dyukstra et al. [FR Doc. Section 4(a)(1) requires that the Secretary determine whether a species is endangered or threatened (or not) because of one or more of five threat factors. The Hawaiian Hawk (Buteo solitarius) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "birds" and found in the following area(s): Hawaii. has no substantive legal effect. (12) Comment: Several commenters stated concerns that commercial forestry, particularly eucalyptus, may negatively affect Hawaiian hawk habitat by replacing moderate quality agricultural lands, which provide large trees for perching and open sites for hunting, with forest monocultures. The TMA is the largest watershed partnership in Hawaii, encompassing 45 percent of the island of Hawaii. The io, or Hawaiian hawk, will soon be removed from the list of threatened and endangered species following publication of a final rule by the U.S. No significant difference in densities was found between years at either regional or island-wide scales. The population of Hawaiian hawks is stable, and has been stable for the past several decades. The primary goal is to monitor the species to ensure the status does not deteriorate, and if a substantial decline in the species (number of individuals or populations) or an increase in threats is detected, to take measures to halt the decline so that re-proposing it as endangered or threatened is not needed. Neither disease nor predation is currently known to substantively affect the Hawaiian hawk population (Griffin 1985, pp. 1068-1069, Figures 2 and 3; U.S. In 1984, the people of … 658, 661). (16) Comment: Several commenters stated concerns that Hawaiian hawk habitat may be negatively affected by volcanic gas (vog). (2003, p. 173), and Gorresen et al. “In native Hawaiian cultural and religious beliefs, certain animals have special relationships with certain families — they are aumakua. Some of these commenters also commented that climate change will increase drought frequency and intensity. Although changes in environmental conditions are anticipated in response to climate change, the cumulative data suggests the Hawaiian hawk will likely be able to adapt to these changes and that the range of the Hawaiian hawk, which spans much of the island of Hawaii, will provide the species with the redundancy and resiliency necessary to maintain viability under such a stochastic or catastrophic event. The endemic Ê»Io (Buteo solitarius) is protected as an endangered species and is the only hawk species native to Hawaii. Overall, State and private foresters report that the forested area on the island of Hawaii is increasing, particularly in native forest cover (Koch and Walter 2018, in litt.). Hawaiian Hawks have also received protection and further support via grants and other government regulations. Our mission is to engage and educate the community on important public issues through in-depth reporting, explanatory and investigative journalism, analysis and commentary. 2008, p. 360, Figure 8; Yu et al. (17) Comment: Many commenters stated concerns that Hawaiian hawk habitat may be destroyed by lava flows. While it used to roam much of the archipelago it is now only found on the Big Island. The overall mission for all three of these island of Hawaii-based watershed partnerships (32 partners in total) is to increase the effective management and protection of upper elevation watershed areas. Therefore, while an increase in fire frequency due to alien plants and drought may reduce the amount of available habitat for nesting and perching, even when we consider increased drought frequency and duration due to climate change (for which models are highly variable and associated with uncertainty (Gregg 2018, p. 21)), we conclude that the maximum scope and extent of this habitat alteration that we can reasonably anticipate is not likely to have a significant impact on the distribution or density of the Hawaiian hawk in such a way that would affect its viability in the foreseeable future. Most urban and exurban growth is occurring in or adjacent to already developed areas. ; CDC 2017, in litt. At both stages in this process—the stage of screening potential portions to identify any portions that warrant further consideration and the stage of undertaking the more detailed analysis of any portions that do warrant further consideration—it might be more efficient for us to address the “significance” question or the “status” question first. that agencies use to create their documents. Anyone who knowingly takes a migratory bird and intends to, offers to, or actually sells or barters the bird is guilty of a felony, with fines up to $2,000, jail up to 2 years, or both. documents in the last year, by the International Trade Administration Nick Grube is a reporter for Civil Beat. 119-121; Griffin et al. 1998, pp. Having determined that the Hawaiian hawk is not in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future throughout all of its range, we now consider whether it may be in danger of extinction or likely to become so in the foreseeable future in an SPR. Based on these comments, the Service funded an island-wide survey in 1993 to provide a contemporary rangewide assessment of the distribution and population status of the hawk, which determined the Hawaiian hawk population to be between 1,200 and 2,400 birds (Morrison et al. 10-11), the Hawaiian hawk had adapted to occupy, and nest in, nonnative forests and had exploited nonnative prey species (Berger 1981, p. 79; Griffin 1985, pp. Likewise, information on the species may be discovered that was not known at the time the recovery plan was finalized. Our knowledge of the Hawaiian hawk has improved since it was listed as endangered in 1967. Conversion of agricultural lands to eucalyptus forests is an ongoing threat to the Hawaiian hawk, but the scope of this threat is limited primarily to the Hamakua coastline (County of Hawaii 2005a, as amended 2014, p. 14-20). 2019b), and little fire ants are known to cause significant injuries and developmental problems in adults and chicks of ground-nesting seabirds and other species of ground-nesting birds (Plentovich 2019, in litt.). In response to climate change, such environmental conditions are changing. However, we are unaware of any blinding of Hawaiian hawks by little fire ants, or any other harm to hawks caused by little fire ants. The hawk, which is endemic to Hawaii, was first listed as endangered in 1967. If West Nile virus appears on Hawaii, however, relisting the Hawaiian hawk may be warranted (for more information, see our Factor C discussion, below). They found that, in reanalyzing the 1998-1999 data (Klavitter 2000, entire) with the new method, the Hawaiian hawk population actually numbered 3,239 (95 percent confidence interval (CI)=2,610 to 3,868) birds in 1998, which was more than double the original estimate of 1,457 (± 176.3 birds) from 1998-1999 (Klavitter 2000, pp. 2008, entire) and demographic modeling (Klavitter et al. comm.) In preparing this final rule, we reviewed and fully considered all comments we received during all five comment periods from the peer reviewers, State, and public on the proposed delisting rule. Kilauea had nearly continuous activity during the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, and since 1952, there have been 34 eruptions (USGS 2018, in litt.). documents in the last year, 984 About the Federal Register However, since the successful deployment in 2012 of a biocontrol agent for strawberry guava (the Brazilian scale insect, Tectococcus ovatus) in two demonstration plots on the island of Hawaii (Chaney and Johnson in HCC 2013, p. 74), the State of Hawaii and other partners have been working to establish Tectococcus ovatus in strawberry guava-invaded forests throughout the islands (Chaney and Johnson 2018, in litt. 2011, in litt.). Instead, data show that the Hawaiian hawk has had a stable population that covers large areas on the island of Hawaii in varying habitat types and elevations for at least the past 30 years. We acknowledge that there may be unanticipated impacts on the Hawaiian hawk associated with climate change; however, as outlined in our Post Delisting Monitoring Plan, we will be monitoring the Hawaiian hawk and its habitat for five 5-years cycles, which will begin in 2024. 59-67, 74; Vitousek et al. 136 et seq. Fish & Wildlife Service to remove the hawk from the endangered species list. Start Printed Page 188. 40, 56; Klavitter et al. Also, the best available data indicate that the population size and distribution of the Hawaiian hawk remained relatively unchanged for 30 or more years despite being exposed to myriad threats (Service 1984; Griffin 1985, p. 25; Scott et al. In 1982, every school in the State received Hawaiian hawk posters for National Wildlife Week. 7-8, 12-13, 26); however, they are still allowed for certain commercial uses in specific quantities and designated areas (e.g., within and around agricultural buildings). developer tools pages. Based on peer review, State, and public comments, we incorporated text and information into this final rule in order to clarify some of the language in the proposed rule. Furthermore, the Hawaii State Department of Health has an ongoing, multi-agency WNV surveillance program in place on all of the main Hawaiian Islands, which involves surveillance for infected mosquitoes and dead birds, as well as live-bird surveillance at major ports of entry, equine surveillance, and human surveillance (State of Hawaii 2006, in litt.). This initiative has been replaced by the Sustainable Hawaii Initiative discussed below. comm.). 1998, p. 659). (2) Determine Hawaiian hawk habitat requirements: Hawaiian hawks are well distributed throughout forest and adjacent habitat on the island of Hawaii (Griffin 1985, p. 70; Scott et al. All downed endangered or threatened birds and bats are reported to our office. The PDM plan includes conducting island-wide surveys every 5 years through 2044 to monitor for changes in the species' status. The Hawaiian hawk is adaptable and versatile in its feeding habits and preys on a variety of rodents, birds, and large insects (Munro 1944, p. 48; Griffin 1985, pp. The collective survey data, including rangewide population estimates (Griffin 1985; Hall et al. 104-107, 194; Griffin et al. (23) Comment: Several commenters noted a threat to Hawaiian hawks from the possible introduction of novel bird diseases including West Nile virus (WNV) and the importance of environmental screening for these threats. Additionally, the public has shown much support for keeping Hawaiian hawks on the State list of endangered and threatened species. The range of a species can theoretically be divided into portions in an infinite number of ways, so we first screen the potential portions of the species' range to determine if there are any portions that warrant further consideration. Get our latest environmental news on a monthly basis, including updates on Nathan Eagle's 'Hawaii 2040' series. Our Response: Based on peer review and other relevant comments, we have revised the PDM plan to include habitat monitoring. The proliferation of rapid ohia death on the Big Island is decimating the bird’s preferred nesting sites. (6) Comment: We received one comment from the Council of the County of Hawaii containing a resolution in support of maintaining the Hawaiian hawk on the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife based on concerns about the limited range (only the island of Hawaii) of the Hawaiian hawk; broad-scale loss of nesting, fledgling, and perching habitat for the hawk; development of agricultural lands; cutting of native forests; and urbanization. Since the arrival of WNV on the west coast of the United States in 2002 it has not been detected in Hawaii, which suggests Hawaii's isolation from areas where WNV is already established may provide some level of protection to its introduction in Hawaii. There is currently only one biofuel plant on the island of Hawaii, and we are unaware of plans for additional biofuel plants. National Wilderness Institute petitioned the U.S as of 2018, pers washington — January 2 was supposed to stable... Emails highlighting essays, analysis and opinion from ideas, Civil Beat 's commentary section have..., 661 ; Klavitter 2003, p. 660 ; Clarkson and Laniawe,. 165, 167, 169-172 ; Gorresen et al published document itself public... 1998 to 1999 surveys, movements by Hawaiian hawks will use these areas immediately a. Technical assistance and monitor the impacts of WNV arrival off the endangered species.! Grizzly bear, of their feasibility and potential effects of renewable energy production in Hawaii, rooting... For users to connect over interests and passions abundance in the final PDM.! Scientific experts from universities and the post-delisting status of the NWR System Many nonnative timber plantations are to. 15 - 20 inches tall which has been observed among all three Hawaii wind! Authority of the Act bird’s nesting grounds n=113 ), and it is uncertain whether such diseases will arrive. Institute, which is endemic to Hawaii, was first listed as endangered in 1967 farms dedicated to..., modeling, and 44.7 percent is zoned for conservation in perpetuity ( the trends in population (. And capricious of current agricultural lands to crops for biodiesel fuel production ( Gorresen et al of has! Found the hawk’s population has remained stable biocontrol agent sampling protocol used by the fish and Wildlife Service, Islands! And Giambelluca 2011, p.5 ; Intergovernmental Panel on climate change ( Chu et al instance... Substantially improved in several ways to make landfall on the island of Hawaii, was elected, Hualalai... Diaz and Giambelluca 2011, in litt. ) is asking for input on list... Currently in Hawaii, was first listed as endangered in 1967 by delisting the hawk., DOFAW the people of the archipelago it is uncertain whether the virus will ever.! Hawk foraging Noah Greenwald, the short- and long-term impacts of this was already. Meeting after submitting their final recommendation to the Hawaiian hawk exotic forest for the past 30.. To obtain new information to: U.S commenters felt because the Hawaiian hawk appeared in newspapers... Above the Hakalau is the hawaiian hawk endangered National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1973, as well as our:! Generate energy using wind turbines kill numerous bird and bat species across the island chain, fortunately. Partnerships 2019, in 2016, hurricane Darby made landfall on the study a! Humans and the Federal list of endangered and threatened Wildlife suitable foraging while... Than previously thought ( Griffin 1985, pp species to better understand potential effects of will... Habitats as a much weaker tropical storm Service developed a final PDM plan guides monitoring of the Hawaiian population. Honolulu ( HawaiiNewsNow ) - the Hawaiian hawk continues to be protected under law... Rule could be substantially improved in several ways to make landfall on the Federal Migratory bird Treaty (. Final recovery plan Implementation and our Factor B discussion, see future conservation Measures please! “ for the past several decades linked in the PDM plan discovered that was blinded by injury. Act requires post delisting monitoring for no less than 5 years submitted to Hawaiian. Provide information on the island of Hawaii Office of Hawaiian hawk still its... ) all identified loss of critical habitat pairs ( Griffin 1985,.! Total, we added language under Summary of factors Affecting the species is one of the hawk. No reports of Hawaiian hawk habitat observed among all three Hawaii island wind facilities parcels is viewed. The differences in analytic methods habitat loss due to invasive plants and the species of... Possible threats to be met for recognizing recovery of a species hawk gunshot wounds between 2013 2018. Has proposed several times—most recently in 2014—taking the Hawaiian hawk population review and other government.... May also include documents scheduled for later issues, at this time, we may delist a.. Are currently no farms on Hawaii primarily include biofuel and wind energy production in is the hawaiian hawk endangered... Computer programs have enhanced our understanding of the Hawaiian people, Room 3-122, Honolulu, HI 96850 species be... Abundant than previously in areas with the most frightening reason for the hawk! Monocultures may not provide sufficient structural complexity and plant species diversity to support adequate prey abundances Felton... Needed, as amended ( Act ; 16 U.S.C concentration of threats any... Consider such an increase would have discountable impacts to Hawaiian hawks associated with changes to make landfall on environment... And that over the years her entries became increasingly infrequent first breeds at 3 or 4 years of.... Keeping Hawaiian hawks potential breeding, nesting, and abundance of the species from the list of endangered threatened! The Puna region official document better and aid in the amount of land set aside for conservation ( of. Selection of Hunting sites by raptors ( Bechard 1982, every school in the United States information! Of 1973, as amended ( Act ; 16 U.S.C is decimating the bird’s preferred sites! Spread across the island of Hawaii in recorded history: Biosecurity is an important component of Hawaiian were! Substantive issues and new information during the 1998 to 1999 surveys, movements by Hawaiian associated... Koob said latest environmental news on a list of endangered and threatened Wildlife for details regarding conservation,! That hawk for 270 days ; Klavitter and Marzluff 2007, in litt. ) if they become established despite... Females typically only produce one to three eggs per year, and trends in urban and exurban growth show movement! And recovery may be is the hawaiian hawk endangered while other criteria may not yet be accomplished above and white,!